Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to permanently form pipes or tubing.
One has to differentiate between form-bound and freeform-bending procedures, as well as between heat supported and cold forming procedures.
Form bound bending procedures like "press bending” or "rotary draw bending” are used to form the work piece into the shape of a die. Straight tube stock can be formed using a bending machine to create a variety of single or multiple bends and to shape the piece into the desired form.
These processes can be used to form complex shapes out of different types of ductile metal tubing. Freeform-bending processes, like three-roll-pushbending, shape the workpiece kinematically, thus the bending contour is not dependent on the tool geometry.
Generally, round stock is what is used in tube bending. However, square and rectangular tubes and pipes may also be bent to meet job specifications. Other factors involved in the tube bending process is the wall thickness, tooling and lubricants needed by the pipe and tube bender to best shape the material and it is also used in different ways.
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